In terms of gender balance, the net enrollment rate (APM) of primary level in Indonesia in 2014 is almost 100 percent and the junior high school level exceeds 80 percent (PDSPK 2015). However, Indonesia's score in the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) is at the bottom of the ranking of OECD countries-more than 75 percent of Indonesian students do not master basic mathematics skills (OECD 2014). In addition, achievement of interprovincial student learning in Indonesia shows a very large disparity. The probability of grade 2 pupils in Nusa Tenggara, Maluku and Papua who can not read is four times that of the national average; the probability of 2nd grade students from the three regions who can not read fluently and understand the meaning of reading is half of the national average (Stern and Nordstrum 2014).
These facts imply that the Indonesian education system is experiencing a learning crisis (Baswedan 2014). Various studies show that one of the factors that greatly affect the low achievement of student learning is low teacher quality. To improve the quality of Indonesian teachers, the Ministry of Education and Culture of the Republic of Indonesia has a vision that becomes a reference for the improvement of the Indonesian education system. These improvements include effective resource utilization at the national and regional levels to improve the quality of teacher teaching and improve student learning outcomes.
Addressing the emergency situation of this lesson, the RISE Program in Indonesia is committed to actively taking part in the reform agenda of the Indonesian education system, which is also a global agenda for improving learning outcomes. Through its research activities, the RISE Program in Indonesia is committed to identifying problems in the Indonesian education system and encouraging the changing components of the Indonesian education system which is a necessity for improving learning outcomes. Specifically, the RISE Program in Indonesia guards the implementation of teacher reform in Indonesia in the context of decentralization and examines the extent to which teacher reforms are able to improve student learning outcomes.